Modula-2 also makes available several built-in procedures and functions. In describing these, the following metavariables are used:

`a`-
represents an
`ARRAY`

variable. `c`-
represents a
`CHAR`

constant or variable. `i`- represents a variable or constant of integral type.
`m`-
represents an identifier that belongs to a set. Generally used in the
same function with the metavariable
`s`. The type of`s`should be`SET OF`

(where`mtype``mtype`is the type of`m`). `n`- represents a variable or constant of integral or floating-point type.
`r`- represents a variable or constant of floating-point type.
`t`- represents a type.
`v`- represents a variable.
`x`- represents a variable or constant of one of many types. See the explanation of the function for details.

All Modula-2 built-in procedures also return a result, described below.

`ABS(`

`n`)-
Returns the absolute value of
`n`. `CAP(`

`c`)-
If
`c`is a lower case letter, it returns its upper case equivalent, otherwise it returns its argument. `CHR(`

`i`)-
Returns the character whose ordinal value is
`i`. `DEC(`

`v`)-
Decrements the value in the variable
`v`by one. Returns the new value. `DEC(`

`v`,`i`)-
Decrements the value in the variable
`v`by`i`. Returns the new value. `EXCL(`

`m`,`s`)-
Removes the element
`m`from the set`s`. Returns the new set. `FLOAT(`

`i`)-
Returns the floating point equivalent of the integer
`i`. `HIGH(`

`a`)-
Returns the index of the last member of
`a`. `INC(`

`v`)-
Increments the value in the variable
`v`by one. Returns the new value. `INC(`

`v`,`i`)-
Increments the value in the variable
`v`by`i`. Returns the new value. `INCL(`

`m`,`s`)-
Adds the element
`m`to the set`s`if it is not already there. Returns the new set. `MAX(`

`t`)-
Returns the maximum value of the type
`t`. `MIN(`

`t`)-
Returns the minimum value of the type
`t`. `ODD(`

`i`)-
Returns boolean TRUE if
`i`is an odd number. `ORD(`

`x`)-
Returns the ordinal value of its argument. For example, the ordinal
value of a character is its ASCII value (on machines supporting the
ASCII character set).
`x`must be of an ordered type, which include integral, character and enumerated types. `SIZE(`

`x`)-
Returns the size of its argument.
`x`can be a variable or a type. `TRUNC(`

`r`)-
Returns the integral part of
`r`. `VAL(`

`t`,`i`)-
Returns the member of the type
`t`whose ordinal value is`i`.

Warning:Sets and their operations are not yet supported, so GDB treats the use of procedures`INCL`

and`EXCL`

as an error.

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